Biz asosan, bog’lovchilardan 2 ta gapni bir-biriga bog’lash uchun ishlatamiz. Ular 2 ta qisqa gaplardan bitta uzun gapni yasaydi:
*Agar birinchi gapdagi shaxs bilan ikkinchi shaxs bitta bo’lsa, ikkinchi gapda shaxs(we,she)ni takrorlash zarur emas.
- Biz biror narsani sanayotganimizda vergullardan foydalanamiz. Oxirgi gapdan oldingina and qo’yiladi:
Men uyga keldim, nimadir yedim, kursiga o’tirdim va uxlab qoldim.
Karen is at work, Sue has gone shopping and Chris is playing football.
Karen ishda, Syu xarid qilishga ketgan va Kris futbol o’ynayapti.
So – shu sababli/shuning uchun (= nimadirning natijasi)
Because – chunki (= nimadir uchun sabab)
- Because gapning boshida ham kelishi mumkin. Bunda ma’nosi ‘sababli’ bo’ladi:
Because it was very hot, I opened the window.
Havo juda issiqligi sababli, men derazani ochdim.
Quyidagi misollarda bir bog’lovchidan ko’ra ko’prog’i bor:
It was late and I was tired, so I went to bed.
Kech bo’lgan edi va men charchadim, shu sababli borib yotdim.
I always enjoy visiting London, but I wouldn’t like to live there because it’s too big.
Menga har doim Londonga borish yoqadi, ammo o’sha yerda yashashnihohlamasdim chunki u judayam katta.
Exercise 1. Gaplarni yozing. To’rtburchak ichidan foydalaning va and/but/or dan foydalaning.
Answers3 I went to the window and (I) looked out.
4 I wanted to phone you, but I didn’t have your number.
5 I jumped into the river and (I) swam to the other side.
6 I usually drive to work, but I went by bus this morning.
7 Do you want me to come with you, or shall I wait here?
Exercise 2. Rasmlarg qarang va gaplarni to’ldiring. And/but/so/because dan foydalaning.
AnswersExample answers: 2 because it was raining. / because the weather was bad.
3 but it was closed.
4 so he didn’t eat anything. / so he didn’t want anything to eat.
5 because there was a lot of traffic. / because the traffic was bad.
6 Sue said goodbye, got into her car and drove off/away.